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... alternative to dictionary?

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What is the difference between a dictionary, a lexicon, and a glossary?
These reference books have slightly different denotations. A glossary is a specialized vocabulary with definitions but does not provide other information about the words. A glossary may also be called a vocabulary. A lexicon is generally an alphabetically-arranged list of words with their definitions, but the term does not imply that other information about the words is included. However, a lexicon can be used to mean glossary or dictionary, in which case it would contain what each of those words' definitions entail. Lexicon is considered by some to be a more formal word for dictionary. A dictionary is a reference book consisting of an alphabetically-arranged list of words with their definitions, as well as any or all of these: forms (spellings), pronunciations, functions (parts of speech), etymologies, and syntactical and idiomatic uses. So, dictionary is usually reserved for the more comprehensive type of word book. Lexicon's etymology is Greek, while dictionary's is Latin.

dict. acting

dict. theatre

dict. script


2008 ... "dictionary" page is in every directory!

I put in the combined glossary, which covers the terminology for all film classes. Directing, Film & Drama, Visions of the Northern Mind -- Anatoly Antohin -- UAF, see Virtual Theatre Glossary (new) and Theatre Dictionaries Print it or/and save it on your disk. And -- MEMORIZE it! There are no copyright on ideas, words and definitions. Not yet.





ANGLE The position from which camera photographs action. Camera point of view. High, low.

BEAT A smaller dramatic unit within a scene; a scene within a scene; a change in direction of scene content.

CLIMAX The point at which the complication reaches its point of maximum tension and the forces in opposition confront each other at a peak of physical or emotional action. (see Dictionary @ Theatre w/Anatoly)

COMPLICATION The section of a story in which a conflict begins and grows in clarity, intensity, and importance.

COMPOSITION (visual) A harmonious arrangement of two or more elements, one of which dominates all others in interest.

COVERAGE The camera angles a director needs for dramatizing values in a scene and for effective editing. For example, a full shot, over-shoulder shots, closeups.

CUT -- between two shots.

CUTAWAY A cut to a person or action that is not the central focus of attention, perhaps to a spectator. Sometimes used by editors to delete unwanted footage.

DENOUEMENT A brief period of calm following the climax, in which a state of relative equilibrium returns (RESOLUTION).

EXPOSITION Information that the audience needs to know to understand a story. Introduction of a conflict, character(s), theme(s)

EDITING The SELECTING of significant event details and the SEQUENCING of such details into a comprehensive whole.

FRAME The perimeter of a TV/film picture; a single photographic unit of film. Also a verb: to enclose or encompass subject matter.

IDENTIFICATION The viewer's emotional involvement with (usually) the protagonist in drama; the viewer becomes the protagonist (ID in acting).

INTERNAL CONFLICT A psychological conflict within the central character. The primary struggle is between different aspects of a single personality.

LEITMOTIF A motif or theme associated with specific person, situation, or idea; usually reprised for dramatic effect. Leitmotif is some intentionally repeated element (sound, shot, dialogue, music, etc.) that helps unify a film by reminding the viewer of its earlier appearance.

MONTAGE A term that originally referred to the editorial assembling of film segments. Montage today describes a rapid succession of images that convey a single concept.

Point of view (POV) shot A subjective camera angle that becomes the perspective of a character. We look at the world through his or her eyes.

POLYPHONY The combination of two or more melodic lines (horizontal vectors), which, when played together, forms a harmonic whole (Vertical vectors).

PROGRESSION The traditional climbing action of drama, a growth in dramatic tension. Increasingly close camera angels represent camera progression.

PRIMARY MOTION (Event) motion in front of the camera.

REACTION SHOT A shot that shows a character "reacting" rather than acting. The reaction shot is usually a close-up of the emotional reaction registered on the face of the person most affected by the dialogue or action.

RHYTHM In visual composition, the pleasing repetition of images. In drama: repetition of phrases, actions, or musical themes for increased dramatic effect.

SCREEN DIRECTION The consistent pattern of movement from angle to angle: left to right or right to left.

STYLE A director's personal pattern of treating material, including staging of camera and performers, script elements, and music.

SECONDARY MOTION Camera motion, including pan, tilt, pedestrian, crane or boom, dolly, truck, arc and zoom.

SCENE A clearly identifiable, organic part of an event. It is a small structural (action) or thematic (story) unit, usually consisting of several shots.

SEQUENCE The sum of several scenes (or shots) that compose an organic whole.

SETTING The time and place in which the film's story takes place, including all of the complex factors that come packaged with a given time and place: climate, terrain, population density, social structures and economic factors, customs, moral attitudes, and codes of behavior. Also, see Exposition

SHOT The smallest convenient operational unit in film. It is the interval between two distinct video transitions, such as cuts, dissolves, wipes.

STOCK CHARACTERS Minor characters whose actions are completely predictable or typical of their job or profession.

SUBJECTIVE TIME The duration we feel; also called psychological time. A qualitative measure.

TIMING The control of objective and subjective time.

VISUALIZATION The mental visual image of an event in a single shot. (see Conceptualization)


Action match cut Cut made between two different angels of the same action using the subject's movement as the transition.

Ambient sound Sound naturally occurring in any location.

Aspect ratio The size of a screen format expressed as the ratio of the width in relation to the height. Films made for television are photographed at a ratio of 1.33:1.

Attack (sound) The beginning portion of any sound.

Camera motivation A shot or a camera movement must be motivated within the terms of the scene or story if it is not look alien and imposed. (see POV).

Complementary shot A shot compositionally designed to intercut with another.

Continuity Consistency of physical detail between shots intended to match.

Contrast ratio Ratio of lightest to darkest areas in an image.

Controlling point of view The psychological perspective (a character's or the storyteller's) from which a particular scene is shown.

CS Close shot.

CU Closeup.

DP Director of photography.

Dissolve The gradual merging of the end of one shot with the beginning of the next, produced by superimposing a fade-out onto a fade-in of equal length or by imposing one scene over another.

Dynamic composition Pictorial composition as it changes within a moving shot.

Establishing shot A shot that establishes a scene's geographical and human contents.

Eye-line shot A shot that shows us what a character is seeing.

Ext. Exterior.

External composition The composition between two images at the point of cutting between them.

FG Foreground.

FI Fade in. Fade-out/fade-in * A transitional device in which the last image of one scene fades to black as the first image of the next scene is gradually illuminated.

Final cut A film in its finished form. A guarantee of final cut assures the filmmaker of producer that the film will not be tampered with after they approve it.

Flash forward Moving temporarily forward in time, the cinematic equivalent of the future tense. This quickly becomes a new form of present.

Flashback Moving temporarily backwards in time; a cinematic past tense that soon becomes an ongoing present.

FO Fade out.

Genre A kind or type of film (horror, sitcom, drama, etc.)

Headroom Compositional space left above heads.

High angle Camera mounted high, looking down.

High contrast Image with large range of brightness.

Insert A close shot of detail to be inserted in a shot containing more comprehensive action.

Int. Interior.

Jump cut Transitional device in which two similar images taken at different times are cut together so that the elision of intervening time is apparent. From this the audience infers that time has passed.

LA Low angle. Camera looking up at subject.

Line of tension Invisible dramatic axis, or line of awareness, that can be drawn between protagonists and important elements in a scene.

Master shot Shot that shows most or all of the scene and most or all of the characters.

MCS Medium close shot.

MLS Medium long shot.

MS Medium shot.

Overlap cut Any cut in which picture and sound transitions are staggered instead of level-cut.

Pan Short for panorama. Horizontal camera movement.

Prop Property.

Rising action The plot developments, including complication and conflict, that lead to a plot's climax.

Rushes Unedited raw footage as it appears after shooting.

Scene axis The invisible line in a scene representing the scene's dramatic polarization. Coverage is shot from one side of this line to preserve consistent screen directions for all participants. Complex scenes involving multiple characters and physical regrouping may have more than one axis (Crossing the line).

Scene breakdown A crossplot that displays the locations, characters, and script pages necessary to each scene.

SFX Sound effects.

Shooting ratio The ratio of material shot for a scene in relation to its eventual edited length. 8:1 is a not unusual ratio for dramatic film.

Shooting script Screenplay with scenes numbered and amended to show intended camera coverage and editing.

Single shot A shot containing only one character.

Slow Motion The effect of slowed action created by exposing frames in the camera at greater-than-normal speed and then projecting that footage at normal speed (twenty-four frames per second).

Split page format A script format that places action on the left hand side of the page and its accompanying sound on the right.

Storyboard Series of key images sketched to suggest what a series of shots will look like.

Take One filmed attempt from one setup. Each setup may have several takes.

Theme A dominant idea made concrete through its representation by the characters, action, and imagery of the film.

Three-shot/3S Shot containing three people.

Treatment Usually a synopsis in present tense, short story form of a screenplay summarizing dialogue and describing only what an audience would see and hear. Can also be a puff piece designed to sell the script rather than give comprehensive information about content.

Two-shot/2S Shot of two people.

VO Voice over.

WA Wide angle.

Whip pan Very fast panning movement.

White balance Video camera setup procedure in which circuitry is adjusted to the color temperature of the lighting source so that a white object is rendered as white on screen.

WS Wide shot. See -- LS (long shot)

XLS Extra long shot.

Zoom ratio The ratio of the longest to the widest focal lengths. (A 10 to 100 mm zoom would be a 10:1 zoom).

It will take some time to hyper-link everything. For now, please, search the words the old fashion way.
I will indicate somehow, which terms belong to which level. Including the pre-college kids.


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