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scripting = 1 -- 1-1:

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2. Outline

3. First Draft (Second and etc.)

4. Final Draft

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    Scene Discussion: the writing: what is on the page, action, subtext
    BREAKING IT DOWN: shot lists, location diagrams, homework prep
    IN-DEPTH ANALYSIS: planning the visual translation from the page
    VIEWING OF DAILIES: see every shot narrated as it was actually filmed
    VIEWING THE FINAL SCENE: how it was edited and completed with sound & visual effects, and the magic of film music

    Essential scripts


    "Writing" in script.vtheatre.net (top banner)

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    one act fest

    * Stage vs. Screen (topic)


    "Mindstar has released a free script writing software package. The Cinergy Script Editor is available as a standalone program, or built-in to the larger Cinergy Motion Picture Production System. The script editor creates industry standard formatting for motion picture scripts. Scripts created with the Cinergy Script Editor are immediately compatible with the production management features of Cinergy Version 5."

    The free download at cinergy

    2004-2006 updated

    SCREENWRITING: As students take part in the Cinema Studies and Acting classes, they begin an intensive writing period. In Screenwriting class, each student develops three premises for a second-semester project and then takes one all the way to a final shooting script of up to fifteen pages. This will be achieved through a combination of one-on-one consultations with a faculty mentor, in-class readings and supportive discussions, and at least three rewrites. Methods of writing effective and realistic dialogue will be practiced. Nevertheless, students are encouraged to tell their stories visually, and not to rely solely on dialogue to tell the story. The scripts they write will be the basis of all class work and the thesis film project in the second semester. (NY Film Academy)

    movie-scripts *





    first play:


    about film:




    [ lib.txt ]

    web-video [clips] of the scripts -- "Great Train Robbery" (viewing in class w/script)

    * Chinatown -- storyboarding?

    * ET -- DVD [ homework assignment or test -- from the script (left) ]

    * The Passion of Joan of Arc [ shots -- shooting script ]

    [ info on each title ]

    ... back from screen to pages : video [select one] --

    ** film scripts : [ Bergman -- Wild Strawberries and/or 7th Seal ]

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    * Chinatown

    * ET

    * Train Roberry

    * The Passion of Joan of Arc (ending) -- conclusion

    ... and climax? [ see script page in film analysis!

    You have to love "her" (or "him"), the script. What can I say? Love is a mystery. If you do not know how to love -- forget it!

    I write myself, but as a director, I have to say that writer is nobody in film industry. So, you wrote something (material), now Mr. Director is about to turn it into HIS script! Nothing could be done about it -- this is HIS movie.

    In Russia I was a member of three guilds; the Writer's Guild didn't accept screen-writers, even the Theatre Guild was looking down on the Filmmakers Guild. You know, they with their movies, do not belong to the Art and Eternity. Maybe, jelosy, money, you know, and the fame, of course. So, if you are into Art and Eternity, you will suffer all the way.

    I think that I will finish this mini-monologue on the Footage page.

    Now, the practical matters. I do not advise to use your own original script for your directing projects. Very often instead of being focused on directing, you are consumed with the rewriting the script. This is why even if this is YOUR script, it's better to have some collaborator, somebody, who can continue to work with the text, while you are doing the directing. You do need to have a distance with the texts. It would be even better, if you can have some sort of so-called "script supervisor" (another person to deal with the changes and communicating them to the crew and the cast).

    Often, the storyboard and the script have nothing in common -- and this is bad. Most likely you didn't do enough rewrites. How many? As many as possible, but the way to the shooting script must be natural.

    Ah, the formats!

    I do not believe that there are initial forms for scriptwriting. Look how Bergman does it ("Four Screenplays")! Write the way YOU want, you will format it later (as long as there is the story exists told in visual language). And here is the major concern I emphasize time and again: too often I see you working and reworking the script with no film in it! I speak about it in Film&Drama class, when we watch the great classic films. Take Kurosawa's "Dreams" and try to make it into the short-stories. Do you see the problem? Do you understand that those stories can be told on the screen only! You have to run your story through many screen tests before you can be sure that this is FILM. Check it on the main character (watch and read the "Wild Straberries" by Bergman and think about the main character, who narrates against the plot -- this is how we understand that he is hiding the truth from himself and only in his dreams we see the clash -- we SEE, he doesn't! Perfect!)

    This is not a screen writing class and we can't spend much time on the scripting (usually I ask students to bring their script on the first day of classes). Director's take is the rewriting, not writing the screenplay.

    Other sample or writing for the screen: Antonioni and silent era style.

    Students' scripts are in archives of the online forum.


    [I don't have time now to talk about the composition -- see 200X files or/and script.vtheatre.net drama analyis]

    (the openning -- Chinatown)


    grainy but unmistakably a man and woman making love. Photograph shakes. SOUND of a man MOANING in anguish. The photograph is dropped, REVEALING ANOTHER, MORE compromising one. Then another, and another. More moans.

    (crying out)
    Oh, no.


    CURLY drops the photos on Gittes' desk. Curly towers over GITTES and sweats heavily through his workman's clothes, his breathing progressively more labored. A drop plunks on Gittes' shiny desk top.
    [ the three key-moments: the openning, climax, ending -- samples ]

    "E.T." Commentary by Richard Michaels


    [The letters are in soft-purple against a black background. Purple is traditionally the color of that which is sacred.]


    The black screen becomes a night sky. The camera angles lowers to show a forest against the night sky.


    In an opening in the forest stands a spacecraft. The view of the craft is obscured by tree branches. The atmosphere is misty, with blue lights coming from the spacecraft.

    [The opening scene is misty and diffused. This forces the audience to pay close attention to the images on the screen. The characters are not clearly seen. This engages the audience, as they attempt to see what the aliens really look like.]

    One creature walks up the gang blank and into the ship.


    A strange hand, with two long and slender fingers protruding, move aside a branch that obstructs the view.

    [This concentrates the audience's attention. The creature going into the ship is being observed by another creature. Who are they? What's going on? This is another technique that forces the audience to focus on the action.]


    The inside of the ship appears to be a greenhouse. There are sounds of water dripping. Cone shaped objects (possibly alien plants) sit among earth plants. Vapors flow up from the plants.

    [These images all appear non-threatening. The aliens are inferred to be collecting vegetation, and are thereby inferred to be harmless.]

    [Like many of Spielberg's other films, the opening sequences contain almost no dialogue. The story is told without verbal exposition. He forces the audience to become engaged in the storytelling process by giving them just bits of information that they have to piece together into the story. He doesn't insult their intelligence.]


    A group of the aliens work in front of the spacecraft. Suddenly, they hear a dog howl, and they all stop working. Red lights begin to glow in their chests. It appears as if their hearts have lit up at the sign of danger, as the red glow seeps through their translucent skin. After a moment the red lights dim and they return to their work.

    [This sets up the prop of the red-lights signifying danger. These small creatures are endearing and non-threatening. They are like children, which is immediate grounds for audience empathy. The thought that they may be in danger from wild creatures in the forest, also creates empathy for them.]


    A small fern grows on the forest floor. An alien hand, with two fingers protruding, reaches out for the fern. The alien groans. A rabbit turns and listens. The fingers dig up the plant as the rabbit watches. The alien then carefully uproots the plant. A small wayward alien walks alone among the gigantic redwood trees. He's dwarfed by the huge trees.

    [The awesome towering trees psychologically creates audience empathy for the creature. The audience identifies with him because they too feel small when confronted by these trees.]


    The creature stands alone on a hilltop as he stares down at the city lights below. Suddenly he lets out a moan of fright. A truck, with headlights glaring, pulls up next to him.

    [The quiet, peaceful alien is now in jeopardy.]

    The creature runs from the lights. Several other trucks with head- lights glaring drive up. Smoke flows from their exhaust pipes. Men's legs are seen as they walk among the trucks. They step into a mud puddle as E.T. watches from behind a shrub. A man with keys jangling from his waist walks past a headlight. He carries a flashlight in his hands.

    [Keys have now become a prop which identifies the antagonist of the story: the faceless government agent. Like the antagonist of many other fantasy films, his face is not initially revealed in order to hold the audiences attention.]

    The man with keys walks to a truck where he and two other men review a map that's placed on the hood of the truck. The man with keys holds the flashlight up and points it at the hood. E.T watches them from the bushes.

    [The fact that E.T. is observing the actions of the men also creates a psychological bond between the audience and him, since they are also observing these characters.]

    [While the audience doesn't actually see a map, they presume its existence given the actions of the characters. This style of story telling engages the audience, and gets them guessing about the characters' actions. They then create expectations, which are later often proved to be wrong. This makes the story both unpredictable and exciting.]


    An alien stands in front of a round light and transmits a homing signal, presumably to call the other aliens back to the ship.

    [These characters are all in jeopardy.]


    When E.T hears the sound, his red heart lights up. The homing signal reverberates in his chest.

    [This establishes that his heart is used as a communication device, i.e., these aliens communicate with their hearts.]

    "Keys" hears this sound and quickly turns around. He points his flashlight towards the sounds. The other men join him as they walk towards the sound. E.T. screams and runs away, which is indicated by the shaking bushes. The men with flashlights chase after him.

    [So, like Dorothy in the WIZARD OF OZ, the opening scene has the protagonist being pursued by an unknown antagonist.]


    The lights dim on the footings of the spacecraft, presumably because the spacecraft is preparing to takeoff.

    [The protagonist has the added jeopardy of being abandoned.]


    E.T. screams as he races for the spacecraft. The glow from his red-heart reflects off the bushes as he runs towards the white light of the spacecraft.

    [The audience still hasn't seen the face of the protagonist.]


    A lone alien stands before a large round white light, as he signals for the other aliens to return to the ship.


    Men with flashlights run through the forest, as they pursue the red glowing light racing towards the spacecraft. One of the pursuers is the man wearing the keys on his waist.


    The grated gangplank lifts up, blocking the entrance to the ship. Behind the grate stands the alien against the large round white light. The red light of the aliens heart lights up as he stands behind the barrier.

    [This image exhibits an obstacle to E.T. returning to his ship.]


    The men reach the edge of the clearing and stop as they watch the spacecraft lift off.

    One red lighted heart races along an old country fence towards the departing spacecraft. Men with flashlights are still in pursuit. They stop at a wooden gate as they watch the spacecraft fly away.

    E.T., with face obstructed by a branch, and with red-heart aglow, watches the spacecraft fly away into the night. He utters a sorrowful moan.

    [He has been abandoned in a hostile alien world. This situation is guaranteed to generate audience empathy.]

    The men with flashlights pointed up towards the sky watch the space- craft fly away. They hear E.T.'s groan, and in unison point their flashlights in his direction.

    [Not only is the small childlike creature abandoned, but he is still in jeopardy of being captured by those who pursue him.]

    [This is the inciting event in E.T.'s story: his spacecraft has deserted him.]


    Below lies the city, lit up against the dark night sky. E.T slowly makes his way down the slope.

    Men with flashlights follow. They reach the hilltop, search the underbrush for the alien, then start down the slope after him.

    [This concludes the prelude to the story. Both the protagonist and antagonist have been introduced, and audience empathy has been established for the protagonist. The protagonist's primary objective is to survive and find a way home, while the antagonist's primary objective is to capture the alien.]

    EXT: SUBURBAN HOUSE: NIGHT [This is an establishing shot.] ....



    Two masked robbers enter and compel the operator to get the "signal block" to stop the approaching train, and make him write a fictitious order to the engineer to take water at this station, instead of "Red Lodge," the regular watering stop. The train comes to a standstill (seen through window of office); the conductor comes to the window, and the frightened operator delivers the order while the bandits crouch out of sight, at the same time keeping him covered with their revolvers. As soon as the conductor leaves, they fall upon the operator, bind and gag him, and hastily depart to catch the moving train.
    The bandits are hiding behind the tank as the train, under the false order, stops to take water. Just before she pulls out they stealthily board the train between the express car and the tender. 3 INTERIOR OF EXPRESS CAR.
    Messenger is busily engaged. An unusual sound alarms him. He goes to the door, peeps through the keyhole and discovers two men trying to break in. He starts back bewildered, but, quickly recovering, he hastily locks the strong box containing the valuables and throws the key through the open side door. Drawing his revolver, he crouches behind a desk. In the meantime, the two robbers have succeeded in breaking in the door and enter cautiously. The messenger opens fire, and a desperate pistol duel takes place in which the messenger is killed. One of the robbers stands watch while the other tries to open the treasure box. Finding it locked, he vainly searches the messenger for the key, and blows the safe open with dynamite. Securing the valuables and mail bags they leave the car.

    4 This thrilling scene shows THE TENDER AND INTERIOR OF THE LOCOMOTIVE CAB, while the the train is running forty miles an hour. While two of the bandits have been robbing the mail car, two others climb over the tender. One of them holds up the engineer while the other covers the fireman, who seizes a coal shovel and climbs up on the tender, where a desperate fight takes place. They struggle fiercely all over the tank and narrowly escape being hurled over the side of the tender. Finally they fall, with the robber on top. He seizes a lump of coal, and strikes the fireman on the head until he becomes senseless. He then hurls the body from the swiftly moving train. The bandits then compel the engineer to bring the train to a stop.

    5 Shows THE TRAIN coming to a stop. The engineer leaves the locomotive, uncouples it from the train, and pulls ahead about 100 feet while the robbers hold their pistols to his face.

    The bandits compel the passengers to leave the coaches, "hands up," and line up along the tracks. One of the robbers covers them with a revolver in each hand, while the others relieve the passengers of their valuables. A passenger attempts to escape, and is instantly shot down. Securing everything of value, the band terrorize the passengers by firing their revolvers in the air, while they make their escape to the locomotive.

    7 The desperadoes board the locomotive with this booty, compel the engineer to start, and disappear in the distance.

    8 The robbers bring the engine to a stop several miles from the scene of the "hold up," and take to the mountains.

    9 A beautiful scene in A VALLEY. The bandits come down the side of a hill, across a narrow stream, mounting their horses, and make for the wilderness.

    The operator lies bound and gagged on the floor. After struggling to his feet, he leans on the table, and telegraphs for assistance by manipulating the key with his chin, and then faints from exhaustion. His little daughter enters with his dinner pail. She cuts the rope, throws a glass of water in his face, restores him to consciousness, and, recalling his thrilling experience, he rushes out to give the alarm.
    Shows a number of men and women in a lively quadrille. A "tenderfoot" is quickly spotted and pushed to the center of the hall, and compelled to do a jig, while bystanders amuse themselves by shooting dangerously close to his feet. Suddenly the door opens and the half-dead telegraph operator staggers in. The dance breaks up in confusion. The men secure their rifles and hastily leave the room.

    12 Shows the mounted robbers dashing down A RUGGED HILL at a terrific pace, followed closely by a large posse, both parties firing as they ride. One of the desperadoes is shot and plunges headlong from his horse. Staggering to his feet, he fires at the nearest pursuer, only to be shot dead a moment later.

    13 The three remaining bandits, thinking they have eluded the pursuers, have dismounted from their horses, and after carefully surveying their surroundings, they start to examine the contents of the mail pouches. They are so grossly engaged in their work that they do not realize the approaching danger until too late. The pursuers, having left their horses, steal noiselessly down upon them until they are completely surrounded. A desperate battle then takes place, and after a brave stand all the robbers and some of the posse bite the dust.

    14 A life-size [close-up] picture of Barnes, leader of the outlaw band, taking aim and firing point-blank at the audience. The resulting excitement is great. This scene can be used to begin or end the picture.

    A version of this scenario appears in the Edison Catalogue of 1904.

    The Passion of Joan of Arc * Screenplay by Carl Theodor Dreyer (ending)

    175	The stake is erected in the middle of the castle yard. The fuel is
    	piled up on a foundation of stone. The post to which the victim is to
    	be tied projects over the fuel. The intention is for thousands of
    	people to witness with their own eyes that the Maid has really been
    	burnt. A notice-board is fastened to the stake, with the following
    	inscription: 'Heretic, Relapsed, Apostate, Idolatress.'
    	Further away there is a platform for the judges and the English
    	nobility; another is reserved for the preacher and for spectators.
    176 	When Joan has taken her place at the stake one of the judges, Nicolas
    	Midi, stands and begins his sermon:
    		In the name of the Lord, amen!
    177 	For Joan it is as if his voice has reached her from far away. She weeps
    	incessantly, as she watches the executioner's final preparations; she
    	sees him bending over
    178 	His coal-bucket; later she sees him, with a knife in his mouth,
    	uncoiling the rope which is to fasten her to the stake.
    179 	Nicolas Midi continues his sermon:
    		... Like a rotten member we cut you off from
    		the body of the Church.
    	The preacher turns to face Joan directly; she listens attentively and
    	gives an unconscious nod. At the same moment she sees a flock of doves
    	taking off and flying into the heavens. Then Nicolas Midi ends his
    	short address:
    		Joan, go forth in peace ... the Church is
    		unable to protect you!
    	Joan, who retains to the end her respect for the Church's servants,
    	inclines politely and gratefully in his direction.
    180 	In a loud voice she prays:
    		Dear God, I accept my death willingly and
    		gladly ...
    	Her face becomes more serious and more anguished; she continues:
    		... but I entreat Thee, if Thou lovest me, that
    		my suffering may be short ...
    181	Her lament, mild but strongly spoken, rings through the hushed square.
    	Everyone holds his breath to hear the condemned Joan's last words;
    	every eye turns towards her and watches for her smallest movement. They
    	are deeply affected by the simplicity she shows, face to face with
    	death. Many are in tears, even some of the English soldiers.
    182 	At the end of her prayer she says to Ladvenu, with tears in her eyes:
    		Where will I be tonight?
    	Ladvenu exhorts her to have faith in God: with the help of the Almighty
    	she will attain her place in Paradise. The English soldiers grow
    	impatient, and one of their officers approaches the platform and says:
    		Look here, priest, are you going to be all day?
    183	Ladvenu insists on his right to prepare the young woman for death. And
    	he says to Massieu, who is bringing him a small missal:
    		Joan wishes to have a cross with her when she
    184 	Ladvenu instructs Massieu to fetch one from the chapel, and with the
    	little missal in his hand he reads the prayers for those under sentence
    	of death.
    	One of the English soldiers has heard Ladvenu's words to Massieu. He
    	extracts two bits of wood from a faggot lying ready for the bonfire,
    	and joins them so that they form a modest little cross.
    185 	Joan, who has followed his movements, is touched. She takes the cross
    	lovingly and reverently, and covers it with kisses.
    186 	The English captain is now losing patience, and orders the executioner
    	to do his duty.
    187 	Massieu returns with the processional cross. He shows it to Joan; she
    	is inexpressibly happy as she takes it with both hands, kisses it with
    	tears in her eyes, and addresses ardent prayers to it.
    188 	Now her eye falls on the executioner, who has climbed up on the other
    	side of her in order to tie her to the stake. He drops the rope; she
    	picks it up. She is bound brutally to the stake.
    	Ladvenu remains standing. During Joan's prayer he remains holding the
    	crucifix in front of her, so that throughout she can see her Savior.
    	When the executioner has secured Joan he descends. Ladvenu continues to
    	speak words of comfort to Joan.
    	All around her are now in tears. Loiseleur weeps. Even Cauchon weeps.
    	The executioner has made his final preparations.
    189 	In his hand he holds the flaming torch which is to set the bonfire
    190	Joan suddenly catches sight of the fire, but her first thought is not
    	for herself: she thinks only of Ladvenu, who seems to have forgotten
    	the danger he is exposed to. She shouts to him:
    		The fire! Get down!
    191	But she implores him urgently to continue right up to the end holding
    	the cross raised before her eyes.
    192	The flames crackle and climb higher.
    193	Suddenly a deathly hush descends on the square. A dull silence. Only
    	the crackle of the flames and the mumbled prayers of the priests can be
    	heard. Oppressed by this stillness, some of the spectators fall on
    	their knees, and others follow their example. Many of them light wax
    194 	The flames leap from one faggot to another ... they advance in little
    	jumps over cavities and gaps in the fuel. Sparks fly, smoke whirls up;
    	through the smoke, which occasionally conceals Joan, can be seen part
    	of her
    195	Face, which is raised to heaven, and her mouth, which is whispering
    	prayers. Then her eyes seek Christ, whom Ladvenu continues to hold up
    	towards her; Christ who, like herself, is enveloped in smoke.
    196 	Through the smoke she sees the executioner stirring the fire,
    197 	And a soldier on his knees trying to get near enough to the bonfire to
    	throw the martyr's crown on it.
    198 	She also sees Massieu, who is sprinkling holy water on the bonfire from
    	his stoup.
    199 	Meanwhile the judges have risen. The clerics are not allowed to witness
    	the actual execution, but their departure is in the nature of a flight.
    	The eyes of most of them are filled with tears. They all cross
    	themselves as they withdraw.
    200 	The English soldiers force a way for them through the crowd, but as the
    	priests approach the spectators the latter draw back of their own
    	accord to avoid contact with them. On every face you can read contempt,
    	in every quarter you can hear the traitors being taunted as such.
    201	Suddenly the first tongues of flame lick round Joan's feet. She
    	squirms. The things of this earth are vanishing, and Joan's thoughts
    	are now only of the King of Heaven. In spite of the pain and terror she 
    	does not forget her Christ -- indeed it is as if, with every second
    	that passes, she is coming steadily closer to Him.
     	she begins to scream in her long death-struggle.
    202	The weeping crowds repeat the name of Jesus.
    203 	Innumerable tongues of flame, growing constantly in size, number and
    	fierceness, are now fanning round her.
    204	The rope binding her to the stake begins to burn.
    205 	Joan is frantic with terror:
    	she screams in her agony.
    206 	The echo repeats her cry in the sad and silent square. The bystanders
    	pray in chorus, while the women weep and wail:
    		Intercede for us ...
    	Others continue:
     		... now and in our last hour.
    207	Joan's coat is already in flames, consumed by the fire as far as the
    	knees. Her feet are burning.
    208 	But the executioner continues piling fuel on the bonfire. An ominous,
    	infernal silence prevails.
    209	Joan screams:
    		Jesus!  Jesus!
    210	But the bystanders, who during these final scenes stand as if paralyzed
    	by the fire and by Joan's cries, are seized by a mood compounded of
    	fear and ecstasy.  Outbursts of anger and indignation against the
    	oppressors can already be heard. The English soldiers take up a
    	threatening posture.
    211	The flames climb steadily higher.
    212 	The notice-board fastened over Joan's head goes up in flames and falls
    	into the bonfire.
    213 	A last vision is caught of Joan's face, contorted in terror. She
    	pronounces once more the name of Jesus, lets her head slump and gives
    	up the ghost. The tumult grows among the bystanders, clenched fists are
    	raised in the air.
    214 	Threatening words can be heard. Then somebody in the crowd gives free
    	expression to what everybody is thinking and shouts:
    		You have burnt a saint!
    	The cry is taken up, until it is heard from every throat.
    215	The rope fastening Joan to the stake has burnt through and falls in
    	ashes. Joan's body totters and sinks into the bonfire.
    216 	At a sign from Warwick the soldiers pursue the mob out of the castle
    	yard with thrusts of their lances, through the gate and over the
    	drawbridge, which is then raised. Many fall victim to the soldiers'
    	brutality or are trampled to death.
    217 	The smoke rises in a column, concealing Joan.
    218 	On Warwick's orders the executioner rakes through the fire. Normally no
    	trace of Joan should remain -- but what is this? Joan's heart is
    	undamaged. He shows it to Warwick and pours oil on the flames, but
    	still the heart will not catch fire. He tries in vain, with the help of
    	sulphur and coal, to make it burn: the flame leaps up, guided by his
    	expert hand, but when the fire subsides again the executioner finds the
    	heart still intact. Convinced that he is witnessing a manifest miracle,
    	he looks questioningly at Warwick, who answers curtly:
    		Throw this lot in the Seine!
    219 	In his anguish the executioner falls on his knees before Ladvenu,
    	terrified that he will be condemned for having burnt a saint.
    		As the sun went down Joan's heart was sunk in
    		the river, the heart which from that time
    		became the heart of France, just as she herself
    		was the incarnation of the eternal France.


    Script is the most invisable and most important component of the movie. You can have the best actors, bect cinematography, but if the story is not there, or not told -- the film will never make it (history).
    Fundamentals of Film : Work with Actors! Mise-en-Scene?


    * dfilm.com
    * ifilm.com
    * mediatrip.com
    * super8
    * classics
    * independent

    playsChekhov, Ibsen, Shakespeare


    But what about some strange stuff like your "Battleship Potemkin"?


    You are at home. Get the pen and paper and try to write a script without sound, color and central hero.

    Best exrc. is to reconstruct your favorite movie; write down what you remember and see how the story is told.


    You see, there is a story -- very much for a movie -- and nothing else. Plot = Action!


    TOPICS: drama + comedy + postmodern + time + space + Artistic ID * Style * Story, Form & Genre * Screen Language * Projects * Script * Translation to the Screen * Directing the Frame * Subject Size * Angle * Perspective * Composition * Look * Movement * Continuity * Coverage * mise-en-scene * Casting * Rehearsal * Directing Actors * Audience * Expectation * Suspense * Surprise * Violence * Humor * Dynamic Dialogue Scenes * Static Dialogue Scenes * Group Dialogue Scenes * Tips * Documentaries & Experimental * scripts *

    @2001-2003- film-north * NEXT: Film-Books * Next: Textbooks *


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