Utopia (from Greek: οὐ no, and τόπος, place, i.e. "no place" or "place that does not exist") is a fictional island near the coast of the Atlantic Ocean written about by Sir Thomas More as the fictional character Raphael Hythloday (translated from the Greek as "knowing in trifles") recounts his experiences in his travels to the fictional island with a perfect social, legal, and political system. It may be used pejoratively, to refer to a society that is unrealistic and impossible to realize. It has also been used to describe actual communities founded in attempts to create an ideal society.
* Outopia derived from the Greek 'ou' for "no" and '-topos' for "place" "a perfect place" a fictional, non-realistic place.
* Eutopia is a positive utopia, but has also been used to ironically describe the European Union. [ eu = good ]
... Arcadia (utopia)
... that's why u21.us
semiotics of politics
filmplus.org/600 : emotions as thoughts
Anarchism: The idea that peaceful social cooperation can continue to exist without the institution of government, the social apparatus of coercion and compulsion.
Ad Acta (Kant) --
[Bahá'u'lláh] emphasizes the fundamental obligation of human beings to acquire knowledge with their "own eyes and not through the eyes of others."
3rd millennium: politics always personal
"Libertarian" as "anarchist"
The term "libertarian" was also used by anarchists as synonymous for naming their movement, so as to avoid confusion with derogatory uses of anarchy, as synonymous with anomie. Also in the aftermath of the crushing of the Paris Commune in 1871, Anarchism and Anarchists were officially outlawed for decades so anarchists were forced to call their groups and publications by another name - hence the adoption of the French word Libertaire as an alternative term for anarchist. This is the political origin of the word.
Just like the word anarchist, the word "libertarian", at least in Europe, has long been synonymous with the socialist kind of anarchists, which may be specified as libertarian socialists. On the other hand, in the United States, it was rather understood as synonymous with individualist anarchist.
"Libertarian" as "classical liberal"
However, in the US since the 1950s, the word libertarian has been massively used by classical liberals, only a few of them being anarcho-capitalists. These classical liberals sought to avoid confusion with uses of the word liberal then widely associated with various social-democratic and even socialist parties and ideologies.
Indeed, the libertarian socialist tradition was not strong in the US, so the word was not deeply tied to left-anarchism, whereas there was a tradition of individualist anarchists and other non-socialists and non-anarchists calling themselves libertarians in the US. The word has spread to the US and then other countries, through the founding of think tanks, parties and other groups.
A typographical convention
Some writers also follow the convention of using "libertarian" (spelled in lowercase) to mean a general advocate of libertarianism, while "Libertarian" (capitalized) refers specifically to a member of a libertarian political party.
The government of the United States, under Lyndon Johnson, proposes to concern itself over the quality of American life. And this is something very new in the political theory of free nations. The quality of life has heretofore depended on the quality of the human beings who gave tone to that life, and they were its priests and its poets, not its bureaucrats. --William Buckley Jr. 1965
"Die Untergang des Abendlandes" (The Decline Of The West) Oswald Spengler
Since its first publication in two volumes between 1918-1923, The Decline of the West has ranked as one of the most widely read and most talked about books of our time. In all its various editions, it has sold nearly 100,000 copies. A twentieth-century Cassandra, Oswald Spengler thoroughly probed the origin and "fate" of our civilization, and the result can be (and has been) read as a prophesy of the Nazi regime. His challenging views have led to harsh criticism over the years, but the knowledge and eloquence that went into his sweeping study of Western culture have kept The Decline of the West alive. As the face of Germany and Europe as a whole continues to change each day, The Decline of the West cannot be ignored.
Paperback: 492 pages Publisher: Oxford University Press (January 1, 1991) ISBN: 0195066340
Decline of the West: Form and Actuality, Part 2
Paperback: 556 pages Publisher: Kessinger Publishing (February 1, 2003) ISBN: 0766142841
World citizens are people who transcend the geopolitical divisiveness inherent in the national citizenships of the various sovereign states and countries. By refusing to accept a patriotic identity dictated by any national government, they assert their independence as citizens of the earth, the world, or the cosmos.
("citizen" must be define). "American citizen" and "world citizen" are not the opposites! See "Ruture Americans" -- the world citizens are based on Americanism.
Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. In some of the earlier 19th century usages anti-communism referred to people opposed to the growth of independent, self-reliant and often religious communities such as the Oneida and Amana communities. After the October Revolution the first critics of communism where inspired by a conservative point of view, but with the raising of stalinism many exponents of the left, some ex-communists included, opposed the Soviet Union for its violations of human rights. For much of the period between 1950 and 1991 anticommunism it was one of the major components of the containment policy of the United States.
For this last reason the word is sometimes used with a negative meaning to define an opposition to communism schematic and excessive, which doesn't take in consideration the differences between various communist regimes and movements and it is instrumentally used as a political weapon in the clash between Weast and East. This bias against anticommunism is even due to the opportunistic use of anticommunism made by some authoritaristic regimes to persecute dissidents of any political colour.
In fact, the reasons because of several people opposed communism can be very different and sometimes in contrast between them. Conservative and liberal critics of communism often opposes socialism in general or marxism in general. They are supporters of capitalism and they see communism as a doctrine based on radically wrong arguments. They believe that capitalism gives economic freedom, and regard the lack of property rights under communism as taking away fundamental human rights. Communists respond to this by arguing that the presence of property rights in capitalism takes away other, more important human rights, alluding to the disparities of wealth that all capitalist nations possess, to varying degrees.
Other people oppose communism due to what they perceive as contradictions or errors within communist theory and gaps between communist theory and practice. Many anti-communists feel that the theory is less objectionable than its adherents' actions in power. Democratic socialists as George Orwell or Bertrand Russell and anarchist theorists see communism as a doctrine whose aims are noble but that uses wrong means to attain them. A main critic to communism concerns the lack of individual freedom and democracy in communist states, democracy which is not denied by the communist theory itself (although interpretated in a very different way than that of liberal democracy).
Some anti-communists refer to both Communism and fascism as totalitarianism, seeing a certain degree of similarity between the actions of Communist and fascist governments. It should also be noted that many communists, particularly Trotskyists, use these similarities to argue that those self-proclaimed Communist regimes (which they refer to as Stalinist) were not actually following any sort of Communism at all.
Politics -- standup comedy ...
* Shtirner : "St. Max" [ link + image ]
keys: end notes : profile.to/anatoly + "american" or "politics" blog?