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Film & Video Directing (Spring 2004): textbook Grammar of the Film Language by Daniel Arijon
FILM DIRECTING online; if in class, must subscribe!
Directors Forum: if in class, I recommend to subscribe!
KEY TERMS: Glossary
Method for Directors?
ShowCases: 3 Sisters, Mikado, 12th Night, Hamlet, The Importance of Being Earnest, Dangerous Liaisons, Don Juan
prof. Anatoly Antohin Theatre UAF AK 99775 USA
In order not to mess Edit Page, I will place the rule for EDITING in the CAMERA here, on the RULEs opage.
Loading...* NEWS: * Digital Filmmaking 101: An Essential Guide to Producing Low Budget Movies (Paperback) 0941188337 *
In addition to Checklist Page I thought that I should make another one about the basic rules.
I recommend to read the Mise-en-Scene in Stage Directing and learn the 9 squares of the stage (DS, US and etc.) -- and do some floor (ground) plan exer. Stay with the simple geometrical patterns: line, diagonal, circle, triangle, square. Changing of directions of movement. One actor only moves (case).
Remember all movement must be MOTIVATED! If there is no emotional reason for moving, a practical one must be found (the most effective movement is that which results from emotion). Re-examine the scene (dialogue).
We stress the stationary camera, at least for now.
Number the sub-shots (different images in one continued shot) as 1a, 1b, 1c and etc. The same with the position of actors: A1, A2, A3 and B1, B2, B3...
Editing with the film frame is also called "a fluid camera style" (long master shot that flows smoothly, covering a scene completely of a large portion of it). Sidney Lumet... and Alfred Hitchcock: "Good films are made on a desk -- not on a sound stage"!
This is not instead of the Shot-by-shot techniques, but in addition!
Review the Motion Page and the Triangle Princple before reading this page. We work with the Two Players Dialogue mostly and EDITING PATERNS for static dialogue scenes first.
One of The Triangle Method of covering two players located on the common line of interest:
Camera viewpoints for master shots, are on the angles of the triangle. Take a note: each actor is framed on the same side of the screen (A - left, B - right)!
The Nature of Screen Motion1. Motion broken down
Changing view with movement
3. Using cut-aways
4. Neutral direction
5. Performer indicates the change
6. Contrasting motions in the same half screen
7. Conditions of the cut
8. Where to cut
9. Cutting on action
10. CUTTING after the MOVEMENT (motion page).
Primary Motion Cases
7 Basic Techniques: EDITING in the CAMERA1. A pause between movements
2. A change of zone
3. Approaching or receding from the camera
4. Changing of body positions
5. Substitution by sectors
6. Switching of screen sectors
7. Numerical contract
MOVING from ZONE to ZONE
6 ways of pan
1. straight, 2. diagonal left-right 45%, 3. diagonal UP - DSL, 4. semi-circle, 5. angle in, 6. angle out
Ful circle (zones around the camera)
SummaryThe page will be extended.
QuestionsWhich motion is "stronger" -- primary or secondary?
HomeworkEditing in the camera: arrange the scene within the given pattern.
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* home * about * guide * classes * advertise * sponsors * faq * contact * news * forums * mailing list * bookstore * ebooks * search me * calendar * games * polls * submit your link * web * shop * All scripts and texts on this site are intended for educational purposes only * images : photobucket.com/cinema & photobucket.com/film [ in addition to picasa and flickr ] * my.times * igoogle * my.yahoo * my spaces *Script Rules: Nonody READS scripts! You have to get me right away!Deer Hunter, The (1978) by Deric Washburn. More info about this movie on imdb.com EXT. PENNSYLVANIA STEEL MILL - LIGHT SNOW - DAY The plant is massive, grime-streaked, squatting in the valley under five massive stacks, each one trailing a black ribbon across the winter sky. Fires can be seen flickering through the windows and long flames weave and dance from the tops of guyed metal flues. Steam rises in clouds from vents and chimneys and the sound of it all -- the hissing, the clanging, the rumbling, the shrieking -- comes faintly, muted by the falling snow. In the foreground is a street -- COLUMBINE STREET -- which inhabits the bottom of a narrow ravine and plunges directly down the hillside, straight at the mill. Columbine is a sad looking street, a grim-looking street, a street hanging on by the skin of its teeth. Dilapidated stores hug the narrow sidewalks. Battered signs squeak in the wind. Sandwiched between the stores and scattered on twisting roads along the hillside are narrow Victorian houses. These houses, which run to three stories or more in height, all seem on the verge of toppling over, and undoubtedly would, except that they are all connected one to another by a mad arrangement of utility lines which cross and re-cross between them with occasional aid from a leaning pole. MUSIC COMES UP -- dissonant, rather frightening music -- as we watch a car come charging up through the slush on Columbine Street. As it nears CAMERA the car falters on the slippery grade and slides out of sight. A figure appears, huddled against the driving snow. The figure disappears AS CAMERA HOLDS ON THE STEEL MILL AT THE END OF THE EMPTY STREET. MAIN TITLE COMES UP: THE DEER HUNTER Strong finale (sample) -- DOG DAY AFTERNOON by Frank Pierson
TOPICS: drama + comedy + postmodern + time + space + Artistic ID * Style * Story, Form & Genre * Screen Language * Projects * Script * Translation to the Screen * Directing the Frame * Subject Size * Angle * Perspective * Composition * Look * Movement * Continuity * Coverage * mise-en-scene * Casting * Rehearsal * Directing Actors * Audience * Expectation * Suspense * Surprise * Violence * Humor * Dynamic Dialogue Scenes * Static Dialogue Scenes * Group Dialogue Scenes * Tips * Documentaries & Experimental * scripts *... INT. LIMO - NIGHT MURPHY Sal - please keep that gun pointed up, huh? THEIR POV - MOVING SHOTS from inside the limo. The faces of the poor, the excited, the vicious the curious, and in ONE SHOT some of the people from the Gay Liberation Movement carrying hastily lettered signs: one protesting Sonny: YOU ARE AN INSULT TO YOUR KIND and another: WE LOVE LOVE LOVE YOU SONNY! Their scared and wan faces swim past in the mob. Sonny's mother is briefly seen looking out of the barber shop window, alone and forgotten. The Cops stare heavily, sullen with anger. Now the limo is moving faster. People are running alongside, YELLING insults, trying to see in, asking for hand-outs, but they are going faster. Inside, they say nothing. Up ahead, Sheldon's car flashes a red light. Behind, the police car does the same. VARIOUS EXT. AND INT. ANGLES - NIGHT as the procession moves through Brooklyn. MOVING VIEW FROM GROUND A helicopter follows above them. VIEWS IN STREETS They move along, followed by a HONKING parade of kibitzing cars, like a Mexican wedding. ANGLE AT AIRPORT THRUWAY They turn onto the thruway, trying to out-distance the cars tagging along. INT. LIMO Silence. Sonny and Sal hold their rifles ready between their knees. ANGLE N AIRPORT FENCE as they veer off the thruway, a barely seen Guard swings open a gate and they ROAR through. The Guard pushes the gate to, and the following caravan of cars brakes, skids and a pile-up of fender bender accidents begin, cars going into the fence and each other. FULL SHOT - THRUWAY Cars are strewn all around. Doors open and Drivers leap out ready to YELL and do battle. The Cops guard the now closed gate. KENNEDY AIRPORT - NIGHT Distant lights, some moving. Total darkness. The FBI car, the limo, the following police car move across the darkness... INT. LIMO - NIGHT They sit quiet, following the FBI car. The FBI car stops. They stop. Silence. SONNY Murphy, can you see what they're doing? MURPHY He's still got some arrangements to make. Sheldon is getting out of the car up ahead. Sonny and Sal and all of them come alert. As Sheldon and the other FBI men get out of their car, a pair of aircraft landing lights become visible, taxiing towards the limo. SONNY There it is, Sal. Sal? SAL I'm here. SONNY Oh, Jesus! Hey. How about food? I forgot to ask to have food on board. Sheldon has been walking down to the limo. He stops beside Mulvaney and KNOCKS on the window. Mulvaney rolls it down. SHELDON That's the jet. You give us one more, now. That's the deal... SONNY Okay. Which one goes? There is silence inside the limo. Mulvaney turns to Sylvia. MULVANEY Sylvia? From a handkerchief, Sylvia draws a slip of paper. SYLVIA It's Maria. Go on, honey. They open the door. They urge her out, and Maria goes with a show of reluctance. ON MARIA As she stands up outside she is revealed to have a rosary she's counting. IMPROVISE goodbyes, tearful and fearful all around. Then: MARIA I pray for your safety... (meaning Sonny and Sal) ... Sal? Because I know it's your first plane trip. Don't be scared, you know? (gives him her rosary) And Maria walks away. Now the plane has taxied into position, where it can be seen in floodlights. It looks big and impressive. We know the FBI has snipers ringing it. SONNY I ain't eaten all day. I just realized it. SHELDON We'll have hamburgers on the plane. You ready? MURPHY (turns to Sal again) Sal, keep it up, huh? The gun - please ... CLOSE - SONNY looking at the plane, grasping his money and his gun. The rifle stands straight up between his legs. Sheldon leans down, peering in at him. SONNY What do you think, Sal? You ready to go? ANGLE - SAL in front of Sonny, behind Mulvaney. For the first time he smiles. He realizes that escape is within their grasp. The smile transforms him from a formidable Mafia imitation into an utterly sweet and defenseless youth. SAL (gun pointing high) Hey, Sonny - You did it! CLOSE - SONNY SONNY Let's move it, goddamn it. SHELDON (to Driver) You ready to get out first? DRIVER Yes. Driver starts to turn in the driver's seat! Sheldon brings up his hands to reach through the open window to grab Sonny's rifle barrel, pushes it away, aiming out windshield. Mulvaney sees them beginning their move and starts to duck. Sal begins to see movement out of the corner of his eyes and is barely beginning to react. DRIVER TURNING HAS A GUN OVER THE BACK OF THE SEAT! Sonny sees it, and Sheldon's hand grabbing the barrel of his gun at the same moment. Sheldon drives hard into the side of the limo, reaching in. Mulvaney grabs the girl next to him and pulls her by the hair down toward the floor. Sal, open-mouthed with amazement, is a split-second late bringing his gun up. Driver completes his turn and has his gun leveled at Sal between Miriam and Margaret in middle row. Sheldon grabs his rifle barrel and pulls hard. Sonny lets it go. Sal stares at the gun barrel, trying to get his gun up... Driver FIRES. Mulvaney hits the floor. Sheldon holds Sonny's gun. Sonny, CLOSE, watches. Sal, hit, slams back into the seat; the gun flies upward. Another SHOT hits him, flinging his head back. Driver holds his third shot, turns to Sonny - holds gun to his temple. Sonny looks down so he can see fully as: Sal's head snaps back for a split second and stares directly into Sonny's eyes, upside down. He stares sadly, into Sonny's eyes. As though he knew it all along -- betrayed. And dies. The SHOT is ECHOING. Now SCREAMS, YELLS, SLAMMING doors, panic... Sonny's voice: "Shoot me! For God's sake, shoot me!" FULL SHOT They come pouring out of the limo, scrambling frantically away from it. The limo -- the people fleeing it. Agents pull people away from the car. Driver and Sheldon and Cops peer into the back. Sal's body lies slumped. Driver, Sheldon, other Cops stand about, recovering. No one makes the slightest sort of congratulatory move, it was just another job. Driver clears his weapon, hands it to Sheldon to be filed in case of investigation. ON SYLVIA, MULVANEY, HOSTAGES They hug, cry, laugh, jump up and down: they're alive! SYLVIA (to Mulvaney) I been dying to do this for years! And she kisses him hard in the mouth. He laughs and kisses back... CLOSE - SONNY Tears are beginning to flood past his defenses: SHELDON (V.O.) You are under arrest. You have the right to remain silent. You have the right to counsel to be present, during your interrogation. (etc.) His voice is dry, as though he were reciting from memory something he learned in a language he doesn't understand. LAP DISSOLVE TO: CLOSE - LEON - HEAD ON SHOT like a Warhol interview on TV. Segue VOICE TRACK. LEON Well, I don't see how Sonny can survive in prison, he was very loud, very boisterous. He was obnoxious. CLOSE - HEAD SHOT - SONNY being manipulated like so much beef by impersonal FBI agents... LEON (V.O.) He was very hard to live with... HEIDI (V.O.) He made me laugh. EXT. BARBER SHOP - NIGHT Remnants of the crowd of sightseers, being interviewed by TV men avid for more, more, more news... these are people among the group that held up the big banner earlier: now we see them up CLOSE. They're folding up their banner. A very ordinary-looking YOUNG GUY. PROUD YOUNG MAN I love him. He put an end to all that pansy limp wristed shit! FBI AND SONNY They're getting off his belt, his shoe laces... HEIDI (V.O.) Because he always had a way of getting out, always in the army he was AWOL... OMITTED BACK TO SONNY manacled and helpless. He is twisted into some yet more uncomfortable position by the uncaring Agents. HEIDI (V.O.) I can't help thinking how he might ring the bell one of these days. That's why I'm nervous, because I'm always thinking some day he's gonna come along and ring the bell... THROUGH THE SHOT Sal's body is carried, Sonny, seeing it out of the corner of his eye. He tries to look... FBI MAN Keep your eyes front. PAULINE NATURILE - BEING INTERVIEWED A faded, rattled woman, perhaps a little drunk... NEWSMAN How did you know your son was involved? PAULINE It was on the TV. NEWSMAN When was the last time you saw Sal? PAULINE Oh, a long time. Because I kept asking my husband where the heck could Junior be? He wasn't around here. I thought maybe he was in prison or some place. NEWSMAN Did you know he was a homosexual? PAULINE No, not until after they killed him. NEWSMAN Did you always call him Junior. PAULINE Yeah. NEWSMAN Do you remember anything else about Sal? PAULINE No, that's all. BACK TO SONNY - AT AIRPORT Sonny isn't even listening... he sees something o.s.: SONNY Hey! NEW ANGLE The hostages moving toward a car to take them home are passing nearby and turn to look at him... SONNY Goodbye! You were terrific! Mouth! You're beautiful! See you! THEIR REACTIONS They stare at him; they've already begun to forget him: the moment in the bank when they said their goodbyes is already receding from their consciousness. Their smiles are forced, and they don't really know what to say. SYLVIA Ah, Sonny! Good luck, you know? MULVANEY You were terrific, too! SYLVIA Hey. It's raining. And, as the first welcome drops of cooling rain fall, they begin to move fast... ON SONNY looking after them. The rain hitting his face... the adventure is over. But the everlasting smile overtakes him... LEON I'm glad. Life is easier with him in prison. HEIDI It would be like always, the bell would ring, we'd have a ball. OMITTED BEGIN TITLE AND CREDITS: SINCE THERE WILL BE NO BEGINNING TITLE OR CREDITS, THE PICTURE LOGO WILL FLASH ON SCREEN NOW, AND END MUSIC UP: AS PACINO'S CREDIT IS SEEN, OVER A STILL OF HIM FROM THE PICTURE: THE FOLLOWING IS SUPERIMPOSED: SONNY IS SERVING TWENTY-FIVE YEARS IN FEDERAL PRISON. AS LEON IS SEEN: LEON IS NOW A WOMAN NAMED LANA. AS HEIDI IS SEEN: HEIDI LIVES WITH HER CHILDREN ON WELFARE. FADE OUT. THE END