2008 - 2009 cine101.com
|"My movie is born first in my head, dies on paper; is resuscitated by the living persons and real objects I use, which are killed on film but, placed in a certain order and projected on to a screen, come to life again like flowers in water." - Robert Bresson
French for "author". Used by critics writing for Cahiers du cinema and other journals to indicate the figure, usually the director, who stamped a film with his/her own "personality". Opposed to "metteurs en scene" who merely transcribed a work achieved in another medium into film. The concept allowed critics to evaluate highly works of American genre cinema that were otherwise dismissed in favor of the developing European art cinema.
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KEY TERMS: Glossary
Method for Directors?
ShowCases: 3 Sisters, Mikado, 12th Night, Hamlet, The Importance of Being Earnest, Dangerous Liaisons, Don Juan
prof. Anatoly Antohin Theatre UAF AK 99775 USA
The Call - This is the sequence of directions that begin a take, typically: “Roll Sound!” “Roll Camera!” “Mark it!” “And... Action!”
Continuity - The seamlessness of detail from one shot to another within a scene. Continuity refers particularly to the physical elements, rather than to the choices in Coverage that can result in a lack of seamlessness. Elements of continuity include any actions of the actor, the placement of props, the lighting, the costumes, and so on.
Coverage - Coverage is used to describe the architecture of breaking down a script into the shots that will allow the scene to be cut together. Although coverage addresses the bare-bones question of getting shots that will cut together smoothly, it is important not to be too distracted from bigger aesthetic question of getting the right shots for the scene to work.
Cut - 1.: What the director says to end the filming of a shot. 2.: The cutting apart of 2 shots at the frameline, or the point where the shots have been cut apart. 3.: In the different stages, or at the completion of editing the edited film itself can be referred to as “the cut” or “the edit.”
Cutaway - A shot, usually a closeup of some detail, or landscape, that is used break up a matching action sequence, and is often very helpful in editing to rescue you from an impossible break in continuity or coverage. A cutaway, as the name implies, is a shot that does not focus on some detail of the shot before or after it but cuts away from the action at hand, unlike an Insert Shot. However, the two terms are sometimes used vaguely or interchangeably, although this is not always a useful practice. The best cutaways are the ones that have some logic to them, that relate to the scene.
Theatre Dictionary Two Levels
200X Aesthetics Dictionaty: basics
I encourage directors, especially in film, to use the music, art and architecture terminology (200X files).
Use Sofia ***
How to Read a FilmSubscribe to Open Class @ 200x Aesthetics
Film & Video Directing (Spring 2004): textbook Grammar of the Film Language by Daniel Arijon
Different media have different forms of diegesis. Henry V (Lawrence Olivier, England, 1944) starts with a long crane shot across a detailed model landscape of 16th century London. Over the course of its narrative, the film shifts its diegetic register from the presentational form of the Elizabethan theater to the representational form of mainstream narrative cinema.
* STORY / PLOT : [ * = Yale Film Center Basic Terms ]
EXAMPLES OF FILM ANALYSIS @ film.vtheatre.net:
IMAGE -- SHOT DESCRIPTION -- ANALYSIS
[ * = Yale Film Center Basic Terms ]
EXAMPLES OF FILM ANALYSIS @ film.vtheatre.net:
IMAGE -- SHOT DESCRIPTION -- ANALYSIS
Dictionary Add-on is a simple right-click add-on for Internet Explorer that adds the "Definition" option to the right-click menu. No matter what web site you are visiting, you can now instantly check any word's definition.
Substance is thought and feeling that stems from the artist drawing inspiration from himself, his fellow man, or his universe. He can be fired by a complex thought having its roots in moral, philosophical, religious, or social conviction; or may be driven to express a fleeting passion, a delicate attitude. There is no limitation, for the range is as varied as life.
Content is the subject matter itself, and can be used to express much or little substance of varied kinds. It guides the direction and defines the broad limits within which the artist can present his thoughts and feelings. A measure of the artist's talent lies in his ability to fuse content and substance in the discipline of form.
Form is both a physical and a relative concept. In a piece of sculpture, it is the shape, outline, and juxtaposition of the parts; in a painting, it is the size and shape of the canvas as well as the composition of the elements within those boundaries. In music, form is achieved by the arrangement of notes and measures. In the drama also, form is not only expressed in the physical confines of the stage, but in the relationship to one another of the various parts of each particular work. Outward form is obvious, but there is also inner form, providing subtle arrangements, refinements, and delineations that give each piece an individuality and variety of its own, even though it may not be consciously perceived by the untrained eye or ear.
The success with which the artist blends these elements is dependent on his craft, which has come to mean not only the skill and dexterity with which he uses his materials, but the manner by which he achieves his effects. Obviously, a fine craftsman is not necessarily a good artist, for he may have superb form but weak content and no substance at all. Nor is a great artist necessarily the best craftsman, for his work may have strong content and rich substance, but no ascertainable form. But it is through craft that the way is paved for creative study of the arts. The would-be artist learns his craft and practices to perfect the means by which his ideas can be recognized and understood.
[ The Film-Maker's Art ]
"objectives" (method acting + film)
Cinema Studies: The Key Concepts by Susan Hayward; Routledge, 2000
* see T-blog and VT blog ! My places to watch for directing -- Total Director, stagematrix.com, meyerhold.us + teatr.us for LUL Theatre & stagematrix group [wiki]
ACCELERANDO in music, a gradual increase in tempo.
ADAGIO musical term "slow and graceful"
ALEGRO "brisk" or "lovely"
ARTICULATION connection of the parts of an artwork
ASYMMETRY a sense of balance achieved by placing dissimilar objects or forms on either side of a central axis. Also called "psychological balance."
[ also, see film.vtheatre.net ]
Art Terms[ see 200X Aesthetics ]
Script Analysis Dictionary: use it!
Storyboard and storyboarding
ProductionCamera work: Cinema
Post-Post-ProductionPublicity, PR, Promotion
Online Dictionary from Denmark
A Grossary of Film Terms *
Some Important Film TermsDepth of Field - While a lens focuses on a single plane of depth, there is usually an additional area in focus behind and in front of that plane. This is depth of field. Depth of field increases as the iris is closed. There is more depth of field the wider the lens and less the longer the lens. There is a deeper area in focus the further away a lens is focused than there is when a lens is focused close. Depth of field does not spread out evenly; the entire area is about 1/3rd in front and 2/3rds behind the plane of focus. To factor together all these variables it is best to consult a depth of field table, such as the ones found in the American Cinematographer’s Manual.
Dissolve - A transition between two shots, where one shot fades away and simultaneously another shot fades in. Dissolves are done at the lab in the printing phase, but prepared by the negative cutter, who cuts in an overlap of the two shots into the A&B rolls. Labs will only do dissolves in fixed amounts, such as 24 frames, 48 frames, etc.
Dolly Shot - A dolly shot is one where the camera is placed on a dolly and is moved while filmming. Also known as a tracking shot.
Edit - 1.: The cutting and arranging of shots. 2.: In the different stages, or at the completion of editing the edited film itself can be referred to as “the cut” or “the edit.”
Fade - A transition from a shot to black where the image gradually becomes darker is a Fade Out; or from black where the image gradually becomes brighter is a Fade In. Fades are done at the lab in the printing phase, but prepared by the negative cutter, who cuts in an overlap of black into the A&B rolls. Labs will only do fades in fixed amounts, such as 24 frames, 48 frames, etc.
Follow Focus - A shot where focus is changed while shooting to correspond with the moment of the subject (or the camera).
Frame - A single image (of a series of them) on a piece of film. There are 24 frames per second.
Handheld - Shooting without a tripod, but with the camera held by the cameraperson.
Head Room - The space between the top of a subject’s head and the top of the frame. Headroom must be carefully apportioned so that there is not too much or too little, especially if shooting for transfer to video or for blowup, where the frame will be cropped in a little on the top and sides.
Master Shot - A single shot, usually a wide shot, that incorporates the whole scene from beginning to end. Typically a master shot will be filmed first, and then all the close-ups and other shots afterwards.
Outtakes - The footage from your workprint that is not used in your edited version. Very small bits, a few frames or as little as one frame, are known as Trims.
Pan - A horizontal camera move on an axis, from right to left or left to right. In a pan the camera is turning on an axis rather than across space, as in a dolly shot. Not to be confused with Tilt, technically it is not correct to say “pan up” or “pan down,” when you really mean tilt.
Parallel Editing - The technique of intercutting between two simultaneous stories or scenes.
Rack Focus - A shot where focus is changed while shooting. Unlike a Follow Focus shot, a rack focus shot is usually done not from the necessity of keeping someone in focus but to shift attention from one thing to another.
Reaction Shot - 1.: A shot of someone looking off screen. Used either to lead into a P.O.V. Shot (and let the viewer know that it is a P.O.V. shot), or to show a reaction right after a P.O.V. shot. 2.: A reaction shot can also be a shot of someone in a conversation where they are not given a line of dialogue but are just listening to the other person speak.
Reverse Shot - A shot from the other side of the previous shot (though preferably on the same side of the 180° Line), such as cutting between two characters talking, a person exiting and entering though a doorway, a reaction shot and P.O.V. shot, etc.
Rough Cut - The edited film, between the stages of being an assembly and a fine cut.
Rushes - The workprint, when it is just back from the lab, unedited, called the rushes because of the rush to see that everything came out alright. Also known as Dailies, in honor of the minority of labs that will have it later that day.
Scene - A scene is really just a single shot. But often scene is used to mean several shots, which is more to do with the word’s origin in theater. It is sometimes clearer to say “sequence” for several shots, so as not to confuse the filmic and theatrical meanings of the word.
Shot - A shot is the film exposed from the time the camera is started to the time it is stopped. Shot and Scene are interchangeable terms.
Silent Speed - 18 frames per second. A slightly archaic notion left over from the time when 16mm was used exclusively for home movies. It is not always that easy to find a projector that will project at 18 frames per second and so films shot at silent speed will often be speeded up slightly, whether the filmmaker intended this of not.
Split Screen - see Matte Shot. Typically a split screen is a matte shot divided down the center of the shot.
Superimposition - The same as Double Exposure, but often used expressly to describe a double exposure done through optical printing, as in superimposed titles, etc.
Take - Multiple versions of the same shot are called takes.
Tilt - A vertical camera move on an axis, up or down. Not to be used interchangeably with pan. It is not really correct to say “pan up” or “pan down,” when you really mean tilt.
Tracking Shot - A tracking shot is one where the camera is placed on a dolly and is moved while filmming. Also known as a dolly shot.
Wide Lens - A lens with a focal length smaller than 25mm in 16mm, or 50mm in 35mm, which, like looking into the wrong end of a pair of binoculars, provides an extended view of a large area.
Theatre UAF: Pinter * Playscript Analysis *
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