... chronotope & "montage principle" in theatre.
"Book of Spectator" topics : TIME + SPADE in Theatre Theory [ time as space and space as time ] "Subjective Time" & "Dramatic Space"
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A novelist may lose his readers for a few pages; a playwright never dares lose his audience for a minute. ~ Terence Rattigan
In our case we treat time and space not as themes, but actor's and spectator's unified fields and apparatus of emotional communications.
2007 class -- acting2THR221 Intermediate Acting
GeoAlaska: Theatre & Film
Spring 2003: Don Juan
ShowCases: 3 Sisters, Mikado, 12th Night, Hamlet, The Importance of Being Earnest, Dangerous Liaisons, Don Juan
BM Forum (old, archives)
New Terms:* Center of Gravity Concept
* Subjective & Objective Time & Space
* Moving Points
* Actor's Chronotope
* Actor's Text
This chapter is very important and very theoretical. As I said, I use the term chronotope introduced into literary theory by Mikail Bakhtin, developed around the same time, when the theory of biomechanics was formed.
Meyerhold believed that Actor is Artist and everything that applies to a composer or a writer, does work for actors. If we to accept the notion that any performance is a "composition" -- we can see how useful the Concept of Chronotope is.
SummaryI have to move the theory issues to different places: The Book of Spectator and Theatre Theory (Chronotope). Also, this topic must be studying together with Time and Space pages/chapters. There are several subjects (vectors, axis of action and so on), I can't touch without dealing with the general ideas of "physics" of stage.
QuestionsSilence is the element in which great things fashion themselves. --Carlyle, Sartor Resartus
2004 & After
Semiotics in Russian
2007 -- google.com/group/acting2 pages
NotesRead filmplus.org/film: Film Directing 101 (POV) pages
More and more I use film terminology in BM class; simple as CU and MS frame -- or more complex, like line of action, axis of tention.
Also, film.vtheatre.net: film analysis (subjective time techniques)
The acting area is the area within the theater where the action takes place.
heteroglossia: the diversity and stratification of languages or voices to be found within a work.
p.250 "The chronotope is where the knots of narrative are tied and untied" // Time becomes, in effect, palpable and visible; the chronotope makes narrative events concrete, makes them take on flesh, causes blood to flow in their veins". Thus the chronotope, functioning as the primary means for materializing time in space, emerges as a center for concretizing representation, as a force giving body to the entire novel. All the novel's abstract elements - philosophical and social generalizations, ideas, analyses of cause and effect - gravitate towards the chronotope and through it take on flesh and blood, permitting the imaging power of art to do its work."
p.256 The literary context is vital. "The author's relationship to the various phenomena of literature and culture has a dialogical character, which is analogous to the interrelationships between chrontopes within the literary work". But these dialogical relationships enter into a special semantic sphere that is purely chronotopic". The author is "tangential" to the work's chrontopes; s/he is always outside the text - the two worlds can never be chrontopically identical: "every image is a created, and not a creating, thing."
the chronotope ("envelope of space and time")
"Every entry into the sphere of meanings is accomplished only through the gates of the chronotope." Mikhail Bakhtin: The Dialogic Imagination: 98
... Conceived of in analogy to Einsteinian mathematics in the 1930's and 40's, the chronotope serves a means of measuring how, in a particular age, genre, or text, real historical time and space as well as fictional time and space are articulated in relation to one another. Derived from the Greek, "chronos", meaning time, and "topos", meaning "space", Bakhtin's choice of the term conveys the inseparability of the two concepts in his view.
The chronotope operates on two important levels: first, as the means by which a text represents history; and second, as the relation between images of time and space in the text, out of which any representation of history must be constructed. The chronotope of a particular text thus functions as an ideological index � however, the concept of the chronotope may also be used to discuss a whole genre such as the road movie.
In some chronotopes, mainly those of travel and uprooted modern life, time takes precedence over space; in the more idyllic, pastoral chronotopes, space dominates time. The particular way in which these indicators intersect in a text is what constitutes its characteristic chronotopes, which are also affected by historical factors such as attitudes to nature, geography, class, race, and gender.
... Bakhtin furthermore claims that the clearest textual expression of the link between space and time in Western culture is the road narrative, in which time spent means ground covered. In The Dialogic Imagination, Bakhtin wrote of what he called "adventure narratives" that "[o]f special importance is the close link between the motif of meeting and the chronotope of the road ("the open road", and of various types of meeting on the road. In the chronotope of the road, the unity of time and space markers is exhibited with exceptional precision and clarity" (1981: 98). What is more, Bakhtin realized that "[t]he road is a particularly good place for encounters" since people who are normally kept separate by social and spatial distance can accidentally meet: "any contrast may crop up, the most various fates may collide and interweave with one another" (1981: 243).
[ also, Deleuze "Speed" ]
Thus, the notion of the chronotope can be used to account for the apparently blank, abstract space of the road becoming full of charged meanings. Bakhtin furthermore emphasizes the fact that the road chronotope is a metaphor "made real". He described this process, which is true of all chronotopes, as follows: "Time, as it were, thickens, takes on flesh, becomes artistically visible; likewise, space becomes charged and responsive to the movements of time, plot, and history" (1981: 84).
"This study uses Mikhail Bakhtin's chronotope, which is the informing principle of one's experience of space and time, to explore different relations among space, time, actors, and audience in medieval theatre. Relations between the material and spiritual worlds as understood in the Middle Ages are considered in the context of relations between performers and audience members with two goals. First, I explore how the ontological status of the metaworld created through performance changed in the context of specific chronotopes. Second, I explore how diverse religious discourses affected medieval modes of representation.
This study posits three chronotopes of performance informing medieval theatrical experience. In the sacramental chronotope, disciplined bodies moved through spiritual geographies in Latin liturgical dramas to bring participants into contact with an ontologically superior divine world. The consubstantial chronotope operated from an ontology of self-sufficiency locating power in the individual's body rather than in a superior being. Within the consubstantial chronotope, performance, and representation more generally, was understood as a tool for the contemplation of ideas rather than as a vehicle for bringing performers into contact with an ontologically substantive world.
The transubstantial chronotope works within an ontology of community that constructs performances as sites of cultural contestation and engagement. The communal mystery plays performed on Corpus Christi day in medieval England created a space and time for communicative bodies to tell shared narratives in a ritual effort to strengthen, purify, and heal souls. Performance within the transubstantial chronotope was uniquely open to metalinguistic and dialogic play, allowing the imaginative metaworld of the performance to function as innerly persuasive discourse possessing its own ontological weight and agency." [ * ]
chronotope page in theatre directing theory
[ This page is better developed in StageMatrix: Directing. In fact it has a subdirectory.Bakhtin [Holquist and Caryl Emerson] define chronotope as
...and Method Acting for Directors ]
a unit of analysis for studying texts according to the ratio and nature of temporal and spatial categories ... An optic for reading texts as x-rays of the forces at work in the culture system from which they spring. [Dialogic Imagination 425-426]chronotope: the meeting place of these voices - "the place where the knots of narrative are tied and untied." [Mikhail Bakhtin, The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays, ed. Michael Holquist, trans. Caryl Emerson & Michael Holquist (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981)]
First, we have to aknowledge the objective (real) dimensions (3 D and the chronological time). This is our material. The time could be conctrol only by the changes in space. This is why Mise-en-Scene is so important. Movement is the answer.
"... we respond to gestures with an extreme alertness and, one might almost say, in accordance with an elaborate and secret code that is written nowhere, known by none, and understood by all." --Edward Sapir, Anthropologist (1927)
What is movement? Physical changes in space and time. If you put together 3D space and time, and yourself in the middle of it, you as a generator of this 4D field of action -- you got it, the chronotope of physical drama. Within this 4D field Actor composes his "texts"!
This is SUBJECTIVE time and space formed out of the objective time and space, yours and the public. "Subjective" means transformed by the action. In the BM case, by the movement (motivated = dramatic).
The semiotics theory insists that everything is a sign and therefore every move on stage is a statement we "read" (including the absence of motion). Movement is one of many stage languages and should be composed as a sentence. Actor "writes" one sentence after another and we have Actor's Text (for example, in ballet it's poetry genre). The 4D Chronotope is the "paper" where actor "writes" his movement texts. This is why it has to staged (mise-en-scene) or choreographed. Do we have to do it with every step like in dance (one-two-three)? Not at all, but we have to have the design, the pattern to follow.
The costume helps. In acting classes (or rehearsals) sometimes I have to force it o